Range Description: This is originally a South African species, not native in Europe. It is spreading rapidly in the Mediterranean. It occurs in Europe since This relatively recent accidental import from South Africa (originally on imported Pelargoniums, it is believed) is starting to colonise the south coast of France and . Ecology, conservation and threats of Cacyreus marshalli. Species page, life cycle and photos.

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The second, third, and fourth instar stages occur for a duration of 8, 8, and 9 days, respectively.

The plant stem usually turns black after being invaded by larvae. Several of its generations are active one after another, and can be seen throughout the year in lower and coastal areas.

I remember it all very well.

After hatching, the geranium bronze larvae feed on the flower buds, young leaves, and soft stems of their host plant, typically from the genera Pelargonium and Geranium. Nota Lepidopterologica, 32 1: Contact pesticides were found to have no effect on the butterfly, because the larva spends amrshalli majority of its life within the plant, along with other endophytic habits.

This is how it all started: Plant preference czcyreus offspring fitness using wingspan as a marker for fitness were analyzed, but no statistically significant correlation was found. Cacyreus marshalli, a butterfly spreading rapidly on geraniums.

Geranium bronze

This species was first defined in Butler as shown here and as shown in this plate type locality: It can be seen along all stages of the GMP, though it is more common along the coast.

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One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Geranium bronze eggs are small with a slight green color that turns white then brown or light-yellow before the larva hatches. This South African species, considered a pest of cultivated Pelargoniums and Geraniums, first arrived in the British Isles in when an individual was seen flying around Geraniums in a garden in Kingston, Lewes, East Sussex.

The example of the rapid establishment of C.

This one was not interested in geraniums, it was smaller, darker and had more distinct markings – probably a male.

Larval food plant wild and cultivated Pelargonium.

Geranium Bronze. Cacyreus marshalli (Butler, 1898)

There is a broken line, which is parallel to the outer margins of marshallj wings, as well as false eyes, surrounded by a bright sky blue and orangey rings. Prevention and Control Top of page According to the Spanish Plant Protection Service, Bacillus thuringiensis, diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, lamda-cyhalothrin, alphamethrin and benfuracarb are efficient insecticides for the control of C.

Adults are on wing year-round in warmer areas, but usually from August to May in South Africa. Distribution Table Top of page The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Sarto i Monteys V, Gabarra R, Lycaenidae Leach, Subfamily: Geranium bronze have spread from their native regions of South Africa to numerous southern and eastern European regions. Remarks on the biology of a lycaenid butterfly, pest of pelargoniums, new to Europe Lycaenidae.

UK Butterflies – Geranium Bronze – Cacyreus marshalli

The 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars grow to 3, 6 and 13 mm, typically in 8, 8 and 9 days, respectively. In winter, the amount of these butterflies decreases. Favilli and Manganelli and Trematerra and Parenzan have studied the life history of the pest in Italy.


We then chose to rear them in different ways – some on potted plants covered in netting at room temperature in the house, and some in small plastic containers indoors and some on plants in the greenhouse. The following links provide additional marshslli on this butterfly.

European Lepidoptera and their ecology: Cacyreus marshalli

Sarto i Monteys and Gaberra observed that Trichogramma evanescens can develop on the eggs of C. In South Africa, species of Apenteles have been reported to kill 3rd instar larvae of the pest Clark and Dickson, The five species found in austral Africa are included in Clark and Dickson Once hatched, the larvae bore through the stem of the host plant, where they are typically found within the stem or flower buds.

Both of them are brown with checked fimbriae and a dark small spot next to the false antenna.

It is believed that the butterfly has not become a pest in the South African regions because of an indigenous predator or parasitoid that has kept the butterfly population low. This is marshalli achievable with support from people like you. Cape Town, South Africa: Geranium bronze Scientific classification Kingdom: Our first larvae pupated 52 days after hatching from the egg.

Gran Canaria, Spain, April Cape Town, South Africa: