reactivation. immunoassay system), strips are impregnated with the dry conjugate , antibody, apo-enzyme, glucose and reagents for detecting hydrogen peroxide. The use of antiserum to glucose oxidase in the apoenzyme reactivation immunoassay system (ARIS) is described. Formation of an immune complex between. Apoenzyme reactivation immunoassay; Cofaetor-labeled; Inhibitor-labeled. Introduction. Homo~’:icous immunoassay is defined as an immunoassay system in.

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If the prothrombin time is too short, the patient has not been adequately anticoagulated. The protease test substrate peptide of interest typically a thrombin substrate peptide is built up on small micron diameter resin microbeads using standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis techniques. These are typically then put into 0. The hybrid antibody-apoenzyme is displaced from the tethered test antigen and it now can migrate and bind to the nearby tethered apoenzyme prosthetic group mounted on or near electrode Analytica Chimica Acta Note that although use of genetic antibody-enzyme hybrids has certain advantages, the above techniques may also be used with conventional antibody based immunochemical diagnostic devices, such as those discussed in FIGS.

The amplification substrate, in conjunction with the reactivated apoenzyme, apooenzyme to amplify the signal generated by the cleavage of the test substrate, and changes this signal into an electrochemical signal.

When the test fluid such as whole blood or plasma containing coagulation test analytes 28 is added to the surface of porous electrode 1it permeates into the multiple voids 3 carrying the various coagulation factors, exemplified by protease 29 in an active or inactive form. After the protease test substrate peptide is cleaved by the coagulation protease, and immunoassag liberated prosthetic group—electron transport mediator conjugate diffuses over to reactivate the apoenzyme, these tethered electron transport mediators can then extend the distance to which electrons can easily be transported away from the now reconstituted apoenzyme enzyme.

The immunochemical detector device of claim 12in which the complex is connected to a solid support surface by a hydrophilic tether.

As the test reaction progresses, excess unbound ligands antigens present in the test sample 19 compete with the prosthetic group bound reagent ligand antigen 18 for binding to antibody After the desired spacer and protease test substrate site are built up, the peptide chains are then coupled to an electron transport mediator 32such as Pyrroloquinoline quinine PQQ.

The final stages of the reaction are shown in 31333435363738and In an alternative configuration, which is particularly useful if the porous electrode is not sufficiently coagulation neutral, the thromboplastin pellet 6 may be located outside of porous electrode 5.


Likewise, with minor apeonzyme, the schemes of FIG. Here, as before, the electrochemical apoenzyme 1which may be the apoenzyme form of glucose oxidase, or other enzyme, is mounted or otherwise associated with the surface of electrode 5. This is shown in FIG. The amplification substrate for the electrode electrochemically active enzyme may either be incorporated into the reagent itself, or else can be a normal component of the liquid sample.

Alternatively the hybrid antibodies discussed in FIGS. The apoenzyme reactivation electrochemical techniques of this disclosure can also be combined with the disclosures of copending U.

A homocysteine biosensor with eggshell membrane as an enzyme immobilization platform. We also share information about the use of the site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners. Thrombin, generated by the coagulation cascade, migrates into the porous carbon electrode, where it cleaves the FAD- thrombin test substrate -bead complex, liberating free FAD.

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In contrast to optical dry reagent tests, which require both precise optical measuring equipment, and precise ways to translate the optical signal into a final answer, electrochemical tests usually can function with simpler equipment. The class of hydrolase enzymes Class EC-3 contains many different enzymes that can cleave a larger molecule into two smaller fragments.

This combination creates a novel combination test technology capable of detecting a wide range of different analytes, and operating in a wide variety of wet or dry, in vivo or in vitro environments. Such recombinant antibody-apoenzyme fusion proteins could be useful in a number of different types of electrochemical immunoassays.

In the specific example where the protease proteolytic enzyme is thrombin, a FAD- thrombin test substrate -anchor is desired, and the anchor is chosen to be a solid phase peptide synthesis bead, it will often be advantageous to include amino acid leader apoezyme on either side of the thrombin recognition and cleavage region.

This configuration is particularly favored for ultra sensitive immunoassays, where background signals due to stray interactions between the apoenzyme and the prosthetic group should be totally minimized.

Other electrically conducting traces and electrode components are available from other vendors. Porous electrode 1 also contains a population of antibody-conjugated microspheres 10 and apoenzyme conjugated microspheres microbeads 20 within multiple voids 3.

APOENZYME – Definition and synonyms of apoenzyme in the English dictionary

Load a random word. In environmental studies, it is often important to rapidly identify trace levels of pollutants. Thus the minimal list of materials needed to produce an apoenzyme based electrochemical prothrombin time assay is as follows: The eluate from this column should then be immediately coupled to 1. Typically porous electrode 1 will be mounted on a carrier 4 that lends mechanical support and protection to the electrode.


As a result, an alternative approach, using premixed reagents stored in a dry form, and reconstituted by the fluid in the test analyte’s sample, has become quite popular in recent years.

Homogeneous apoenzyme reactivation immunoassay for thyroxin-binding globulin in serum.

Note that other workers have found that the efficiency of carbon paper electrodes can be improved by additionally growing carbon nanotubes on the carbon paper base, or by adding additional conducting microparticles to the carbon paper base. These conjugates will generally consist of the appropriate enzyme activation factor for example the FAD prosthetic group in the case of glucose oxidasetypically linked to a test-analyte detection moiety by a covalent link or high affinity non-covalent link.

Prior art for electrochemically based prothrombin time assays may be found in U. Apoenzyme 24 is reconstituted to an active enzyme 24 configuration, and the active site 25 of enzyme 24 changes from an inactive configuration to an active configuration. The tethered prosthetic group reactivates the apoenzyme, and the reactivated enzyme then converts amplification substrate not shown to product, producing an electrical signal using essentially the same scheme previously discussed in FIG.

There are two basic categories of dry reagent test. When the thromboplastin present in the test device 9 contacts the Factor VII in the patient sample 11Factor VII is converted to an activated form The solid support additionally contains an electrode 7and an apoenzyme prosthetic group or reactivation molecule 8 connected to the support by optional tether 9.

Homogeneous apoenzyme reactivation immunoassay for thyroxin-binding globulin in serum.

These test analytes 32 displace the binding between the antibody 11 and the reagent-antigen-enzyme prosthetic group conjugates 12 In the simplest form, the present invention discloses the utility of combining dry reagent electrochemical enzyme based biosensors with apoenzyme reactivation technology to produce a novel diagnostic test platform technology capable of detecting a wide range of analytes, and capable of operating in a dry or wet, in vivo or in vitro, environment.

In a second scheme, the newly reactivated enzyme is still free to diffuse in solution, but all other parts of the electron transport mediator system reactivatiion bound to the electrode surface. Method and device for measuring blood coagulation or lysis by viscosity changes.